Year: 2023 | Month: June | Volume 68 | Issue 2

Socio-economic Impact on Livelihood of Black Rice Growers in Manipur: Heckman Selection Model Approach

Manish Sharma Ram Singh N. Anandkumar Singh L. Devarani L. Hemochandra


The present study was carried to examine the influence of socio-economic factors on earning of black rice growers in Manipur. A sample of 120 black rice growers was collected from two selected districts of the Manipur state viz., Imphal West and Imphal East. Heckman selection two stage model was employed to analyse the result of the study. The study was revealed that factors like education, gender, organic farming motive of production and land area employed under black rice cultivation has found to be significant and responsible to change the income of the farmers. In second stage of the model, number of earners of household and organic farming motive of production were found to be significant to change the income of farmers. Moreover, it was also found that more educated farmers had secured more income from black rice production. If farmers are produced black rice with business motive can be emerged as major source of income and ultimately would be helpful to reduce the unemployment and strengthen the economy of the state.


  • Organic farming of black rice production was identified profitable.
  • Educated farmers were secured more from black rice production.
  • Large area of black rice production was responsible to enhance the income.

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Economic Affairs, Quarterly Journal of Economics| In Association with AESSRA

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