Year: 2023 | Month: March | Volume 68 | Issue 1

Economics of Chakhao (Black Scented Rice) Cultivation in Manipur

Thongam Kanyalaxmi Devi Hulas Pathak


The present study was undertaken with a view to estimate the cost and returns of Chakhao cultivation in the study area. The primary data was collected for year 2021-22 from sampled farmers through personal interview method. A total of 140 farmers were sampled from twelve villages and 10 skateholders which comprises of 2 each of Farmers Producer Company (FPC), millers, wholesellers, retailers and entrepreneurs of two districts namely Imphal West and Imphal East. On an average the per hectare total cost of Chakhao was ` 143883.82. The total variable cost accounts for the highest cost of cultivation incurred for all the category of farmers. Among the variable cost the per cent share of hired labour was the highest for all the farmer category which accounts for 30.46 per cent in marginal farmers, 36.38 per cent in small farmers, 37.55 and 32.57 per cent in total cost per hectare respectively for medium and overall farmers. The average per hectare net returns received by the farmers was ` 100174.06. The overall total cost per hectare in terms of operation was ` 80371.19. Highest operation cost was observed on harvesting & drying process accounting an average of 17.93 per cent in total cost per hectare. Overall input-output ratio obtained was 1.70 depicting a return of ` 1.70 for every rupee investment in Chakhao cultivation. And that the cultivation of Chakhao was profitable in the study area.


  • The paper focuses on the economics of Chakhao cultivation in Manipur.
  • Both input and operation wise cost of cultivation were worked out for different farmers category.

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