Year: 2022 | Month: September | Volume 67 | Issue 4

Inter-relationship among Female Labour - Force Participation, Fertility and Economic Development: Evidences from India

Avijit Debnath Sujoy Das


The female labour-force participation rate has been falling in India despite a sharp increase in economic growth and development. The falling share of the female population in the labour force is a matter of concern from a different perspective. It raises the question of the inclusiveness of economic growth. On the other way round, female workforce participation is having significance in regard to its contribution to economic growth. The fertility rate is considered another important component of this relationship. The present study makes an attempt to explore the relationship between female workforce participation, fertility, and economic development using ARDL-based time series analysis. The study observed the existence of long run cointegration among fertility, female – labour force participation and economic development. The result of the study shows fertility rate is negatively associated with economic development and female labour force participation. Further, economic development is inversely dependent on both female labour force participation rate and fertility rate. The findings of the study may contribute to the economic literature and be conducive to formulating a better economic policy in order to achieve economic growth with gender equality.


  • Female labour force participation is one of the important indicators of economic empowerment of the female population.
  • Both Female participation rate and fertility rate in India have been showing a declining trend for the time period 1990 – 2019.
  • High rate of female labour force participation is mostly associated with the agricultural sector which requires low-skill labour in India. Statistically, the time series observation shows a negative association between female labour force participation and economic growth.

© This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Print This Article Email This Article to Your Friend

Economic Affairs, Quarterly Journal of Economics| In Association with AESSRA

23419104 - Visitors since February 20, 2019